Behavioral Economics: The Esoteric and Exoteric Nature of Animal Spirits

“Our abject of adeptness for ciphering the crop ten years appropriately of a railway, a chestnut mine, a bolt factory… amounts to little and sometimes to nothing,” British Economist John Maynard Keynes wrote, “If bodies are so uncertain, how are decisions made? They can alone be taken as a aftereffect of beastly spirits.”

–George A. Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller, Beastly Alcohol (Princeton University Press, 2009)

In this article, we analyze the awakening of Keynes’s admission of “Animal Spirits” to explain the basal cerebral armament that drive the apparatus of the economy. We will altercate the abstraction of Beastly Alcohol in the acreage of Economics as able-bodied as its appliance to a annex of Economics that intersects with Sociology and Attitude accustomed as Behavioral Economics.

Also, for the activity of our readers, we will quantify some of the qualitative elements that comprise the animal anima that Keynes referred to as Beastly Spirits. By accomplishing this in a blithe way, we achievement to afford some ablaze on the influences that the bulk of animal behavior has had on the all-around abridgement and aloft the political accustomed that flows underneath.

As activated to avant-garde Economics, Ackerlof and Shiller ascertain Beastly Alcohol as “a active and inconsistent aspect in the economy. It refers to our accurate accord with ambiguity or uncertainty. Sometimes we are bedridden by it. Yet at added times it refreshes and energizes us, advantageous our fears and indecisions.”

The angle of some ambiguous prime mover in the abridgement is annihilation new. For example, in The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith wrote of the abridgement as affective “as if by an airy hand.” Therefore, we see the baby footfall that Keynes took to advance the angle of Beastly Alcohol in adjustment to alarm that aforementioned vagueness. Keynes comments abundantly that, admitting rational motivations administer a lot of bread-and-butter activity, animal beings accept to act and acknowledge in the exchange on a less-than-rational abject and with absolutely noneconomic motives.

One adeptness assumption that some basal brainy activity and activity force, the axiological “Id,” or a “Primitive Lust” of animal nature, drives our behavior below the alike appearance of a alleged rational economy. We will break in the accustomed annex of the amusing sciences and analyze the axiological Id.

The abstraction of the Id provides us with an abundantly developed, advantageous apparatus that we can use in our attack to admeasurement the armament and consistent contest of Beastly Spirits. Absent to be neither dismissive nor longwinded, let us activate by summarizing the all-important attack as developed by Sigmund Freud, Rudolf Steiner, and others at the about-face of the twentieth century.

We activate with the abstraction “I,” the basal point of our alone self. This emanates from that which we can ascertain collectively as the catholic all. For anniversary of us, our “I” possesses its own adapted set of uncoordinated autogenetic trends. Freud and others referred to this set of trends as the “Id.”

From this point, let us chase the aisle laid out by Steiner, who declared the Id as accepting the adeptness and abandon (free will) to accomplish an “Idea” through our animal minds. From here, Steiner explains that our minds set Ideas into “Action” by demography them through the animal heart. To put it added concisely, we go from I to Id to Abstraction and assuredly to Action.

We now admission at the choice area we accept to accede an credible duality that forms the unified accomplished of animal behavior. Not absent to lose any of our readers at this analytical point, we will acquaint an aspect of fun to our discussion. Rather than answer this bulk directly, let us instead play a game.

For simplicity’s sake, we will anatomy our bold like the abounding inventories that we accept apparent in assorted newspapers, magazines, and self-help books or possibly in the activity of job applications. We will use a “tally sheet” composed of seven accumbent lines.

After pausing for a moment to draw these seven lines, let us account ten centermost benchmarks forth anniversary of these lines. Finally, from larboard to right, we will bulk anniversary set of marks with the numbers one through ten. If you are account this cavalcade while sitting on the beach, you can use your feel or your absorb stick to draw in the sand.

Next, we ask our readers to attending at pairs of statements and to amphitheater one of the numbered marks on anniversary line. In the afterward section, you will acquisition seven pairs of statements. Aural anniversary pair, the two statements arise to be adapted and conceivably allegory to anniversary other. Appliance whatever adjustment of acumen and alternative is adequate for you, amuse amphitheater one of the numbers on anniversary line, appliance one bandage for anniversary brace of statements.

These pairs of statements are meant to accommodate us with end-posts for the purpose of anecdotic our adopted position in amid them. Some of us may analyze ourselves absolutely with one or the added account in anniversary pair.

If you analyze absolutely and accede with the aboriginal account (Statement A), amphitheater the bulk one (1). On the added hand, if you analyze absolutely and accede with the additional (Statement B), amphitheater the bulk ten (10).

However, if you are like abounding of us, you may accede with both statements in a pair, at atomic to some extent. If this is the case, amphitheater a bulk abreast the boilerplate or against the account with which you analyze added strongly. All set? Actuality we go.

I. All of us accept a adopted accompaniment of alertness in which we feel a lot of adequate and admiration to absorb our time. Some of us adopt the accurate actuality and now of the apple about us, admitting others adopt to absorb some or all of our time in accepted brainwork or in some anatomy of prayer. Therefore, the two simplified statements are: A) I adopt a accustomed alive consciousness; B) I adopt a attentive or airy accompaniment of consciousness.

II. On the additional line, we will admeasurement our desire, willingness, or charge to transform ourselves. Some of us may alarm this activity of transformation a adorable growth, while others appearance such transformation as accidental or even annihilative to our faculty of self. Therefore, this brace of statements is: A) I adopt no transformation in adjustment to break centered in my organized, reality-based self; B) I adopt transformation through arete or some transpersonal experience.

III. This third account helps us to analyze our adopted adjustment of accepting and advancement knowledge. All of us accept hardly adapted acquirements styles. However, let us accede this account as about as possible. To abridge this activity of measurement, we will let the statements be: A) I adopt to admission adeptness through civil acumen or religious belief; B) I adopt to admission adeptness through college afflatus and intuition.

IV. Next, we wish to accede the agency by which we appearance and await aloft ascendancy for our behavior and behavior. Some of us attending to authentic laws and codes, while others depend added acerb aloft an close faculty of appropriate and wrong.

Therefore our fourth brace of statements is: A) I adopt to await aloft a religious institution, a accurate or abstract academy of thought, the government, amusing norms, or added alien manifestations of authority; B) I adopt to await aloft my feelings, senses, instincts, intuition, or added centralized manifestations.

V. This fifth account helps us to analyze the across and ambit of the philosophical, religious, and/or accurate attack to which we adhere. Some of us adore and advance on a abject or aisle of acceptance that is as avant-garde as possible. Others do bigger with simpler, clearer, and narrower ones to adviser us in life.

Therefore, these two statements are: A) I adopt one attenuated ascendancy of religious faith, accurate method, or other, such that annihilation above that assumption or academy of anticipation may be apocryphal and/or is to be avoided; B) I adopt a ample and accepted abject of behavior cartoon from abounding adapted commodity and philosophies.

VI. The next bulk focuses on how we apperceive and attack to accept that which may accept above the absolutely concrete world. It has to do with how we accretion adeptness about subjects, either in time and amplitude or in aeon and infinity, which we artlessly cannot admeasurement and test. Some of us may accept that the alone affair that exists is the bulk about us that we can blow and feel. Some of us may accept in a airy absoluteness above the concrete world. Conceivably we accept that we cannot accept the all from its allotment and accept to accede it as a whole.

On the added hand, we may accept in a sophisticated, circuitous appearance of the cosmos. This appearance may be one that suggests that aggregate emanates from something abroad or that the apple unfolds like a affecting play. This sixth brace of statements is boxy to attach down. However, let us account them as follows: A) I adopt the appearance that the all is alone what we can feel or touch. It is conceivably a concrete absoluteness additional a airy one, or maybe a aggregate all that alone can be accepted as a whole; B) I adopt the appearance that to accept the all we accept to accept a circuitous eyes of the cosmos, one by which it emanates from something abroad or unfolds and develops like a play.

VII. If you accept fabricated it accomplished the sixth item, again acceptable to the endure one! This final account of identification is the biggie. It encompasses our concepts of the complete absoluteness of everything! Actually, this endure account is about simple. Abounding of us accept in something. For some of us, it may be the attendance of an alien and abstracted prime mover or Supreme Getting that we alarm God. For others, it may accept as the aggregate accomplished of Space-Time-Energy or some admission of everything.

On the added hand, some of us may apperceive aggregate as one, as a Accepted Alertness or an Omnipresent Divinity that exists aural as able-bodied as without. Therefore, our endure brace is: A) I adopt the acceptance of an alien and abstracted mover or being; B) I adopt the acceptance of a Accepted Alertness or Omnipresent Divinity.

Congratulations! You accept fabricated it to the end of this inventory. Assuming that anniversary bandage is numbered from larboard to appropriate and that you accept circled a bulk on anniversary of the seven lines, you accept done great. However, you are apparently apprehensive what all of this means. First, you charge to add the seven numbers together.

The absolute that places you at one acute of the spectrum, that is abutting to the “A’s,” equals seven. In contrast, a absolute of seventy places you at the added end of the spectrum, abutting to the “B’s.” Neither one is acceptable nor bad or is bigger than any point in between. Position is alone a accustomed point on a spectrum, like a ambit of colors or agreeable tones. The boilerplate absolute is fifty-five points.

In agreement of Behavioral Economics, your absolute places you about in a ambit amid what philosophers and others accept referred to as the Esoteric and the Exoteric. The appellation Esoteric agency the “inner” (eso-), in the faculty of the close consciousness. It represents the contemplative, mystical, or attentive transpersonal angle that can alone can be accepted by intuition or by college brainy or airy faculties. In about contrast, the appellation Exoteric agency the “outer” (exo-).

It is the accustomed alertness that includes both the scientific-materialistic and the accurate religious perspective. The Exoteric does not crave any transformation of alertness (as that may be advised harmful). For those analytical about their “score,” a bulk of seven would analyze an acutely Exoteric getting while a bulk of seventy would analyze an acutely Esoteric person.

In applying this abstraction to Behavioral Economics, there arise to be behavior patterns that chase from one’s own views, faculty of self-identity, and set of beliefs. In turn, these behaviors backpack over into economic/political decision-making.

However, let us point out that there seems to be no bright break amid Exoteric and Esoteric character on the abject of religious affiliation, political party, or added groups with which we analyze ourselves. Again, let us accompaniment that abounding of us tend to be about in amid the two extremes.

To abstain confusion, we accept to agenda that, from a actual perspective, we do acquisition examples of groups from the aforementioned accepted philosophical, theosophical, or deist attitude abacus into Esoteric and Exoteric factions. In some cases, these factions accept set themselves at acute allowance with one accession and accept angry their abstract stances into political and angry reality.

However, we accept to buck in apperception that what we adeptness accede to be Esoteric and Exoteric viewpoints became alloyed with a assorted of quasi-scientific theories, ballad practices, and the like. Furthermore, these adulterated factions afterwards were manipulated, distorted, and acclimated by adumbration groups with agendas for political and bread-and-butter domination. Therefore, we accept to point out that, admitting these actual contest do not abate the use of the Esoteric/Exoteric spectrum in Behavioral Economics, the contest of history accept decrepit the amnion extensively.

The specific turbulence of contempo centuries that led to Behavioral Economics getting brushed abreast against the dustbin of science may be tracked to the actualization of the Esoteric and Exoteric philosophies and to their consecutive abatement into the mire of pseudo-science. The closing contributed abundantly to the tragedy in the apple during the aboriginal bisected of the twentieth century.

In accession to the commodity of Freud and Steiner and added acclaimed personages who were advised mainstream, a abundant bulk of admission came from those abstracts in the large, added cabalistic movements that flourished at the about-face of the twentieth century. These awning the Theosophistic, Aryianist, Occultist, and Pan-Germanic Volkisch (Germanenorden) Movements, which were led by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Guido Von List, Joerg Lanz Von Liebenfels, and Rudolf Glauer (aka Baron von Sebottendorff), respectively.

In 1918, the Germanenorden, Theosophists, and a bulk of assorted abstract groups including Rudolf Steiner’s Anthroposophical Society, coalesced into one organization. The foreground name for this accumulation was the Thule Society; the chat “Thule” refers to the allegorical Nordic acreage of Ultima Thule from which the Aryan chase allegedly came. However, aural a few years, this movement had breach into two opposing factions.

The Esoteric bandage accumbent itself with Rudolf Steiner and his school, the Goetheanum (named in account of German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who abundantly afflicted Steiner). Meanwhile, the Exoteric bandage accumbent itself with Adolf Hitler and his brown-shirt SA (Sturmabteilung, or Storm Battalion), which grew out of the German Workers’ Party. This affair was financed by a adumbration accumulation aural the Thule Association that consisted of anti-Communist bankers, industrialists, and intellectuals.

Just afore Steiner was to authority a affair with clerics of abounding denominations, the Goetheanum fell casualty to arson on New Year’s Eve, 1922. Allegedly, the blaze that destroyed Steiner’s academy was set by associates of Hitler’s SA.

After the Aboriginal Apple War, the German abridgement floundered. Through the 1920s, it connected to decline, anon to be followed by the economies of a lot of of the apple afterwards the Crash of 1929. While this was happening, the Exoteric bandage of the Thule Society, which had been co-opted by Hitler and the banking backers of the German Workers’ Party, led to the antithesis of abounding advantageous contributions to Behavioral Science.

In Europe and added countries of the world, this arising science was overshadowed and attenuated by the pseudo-science broadcast by Heinrich Himmler and the associates of the Civic Socialist elite. They did this in adjustment to absolve their genocidal plans, which were developed from some of the abstract and theosophical behavior that had acquired avant-garde autonomous abutment during the above-mentioned half-century.

Meanwhile, in Britain, Keynes’s followers abiding out and removed about all of the noneconomic motives and aberrant behaviors-the Beastly Spirits–that lay at the bulk of his account of the Abundant Depression in his book The Accepted Theory, 1936. In addition, these motives and behaviors served as allotment of the abject that acclaimed the new commodity of Keynes from the Classical Economics of the day that had been avant-garde abundantly by Keynes’s own tutor, the allegorical British Economist Alfred Marshall.

In today’s world, with a few exceptions, governments do not assassinate the investment strategies for their countries-business bodies do. Anyone who has gone to business academy has abstruse about the quantitative administration skills, argumentation models, and theories that are acclimated to accomplish optimal investment decisions. However, if absolute companies in fact invest, basal cerebral factors play a above role, added generally than not.

To allegorize this assertion, Akerlof and Shiller adduce from Jack Welch, the above arch of Accepted Electric, in his adventures Jack: Straight from the Gut (Business Additional 1000, 2001). Welch distrusts quantitative procedures in business decision-making. He writes, “The endure affair I capital was a alternation of abstruse questions to account a few points. We had dozens of bodies commonly traveling through what I advised ‘dead books.’ All my career, I never capital to see a planning book afore the getting presented it. To me, the bulk of these sessions wasn’t in the books. It was in the active and hearts of the bodies who were advancing to [GE headquarters]. I capital to assignment down, to get above the anchor and into the cerebration that went into them. I bare to see the business leaders’ physique accent and the affection they caked into their arguments.”

This adventure exemplifies the way that the elements of Beastly Spirits-confidence, accessible corruption, the apparition of money, and storytelling–enter into the absolute apple of business, markets, and the abridgement as a whole.

“The Media IS the Message” -Marshall McCluhan

Since the era in which the Exoteric/Esoteric and Beastly Alcohol were added broadly advised and discussed, accession above affair that has arisen is the admeasurement of cyberbanking media and the accessible aftereffect of the boundless “medianet” (a appellation associated with the networking behemothic Cisco Systems that refers to the chip arrangement of abounding types of cyberbanking media) on academician development and the consistent behavior of humans.

When Steiner and others discussed Esoteric and Exoteric anticipation and Keynes wrote about Beastly Alcohol affecting bread-and-butter activity, the apple alone afresh had entered the age of motion pictures, radio, and landline telecommunication. However, in our present world, anyone over the age of fifty apparently grew up with televisions that glowed abounding hours per day. As we move down through the age strata, we acquisition ourselves, our adolescent siblings, and our own accouchement and grandchildren apparent to an even added ambit of media during the aboriginal ages of animal development.

Ackerloff and Shiller advance that Keynes’s statements about Beastly Alcohol active the abridgement and the consistent role of government in the 1930s resembles abundant of the parenting admonition offered today by books, articles, and television shows. As parents, we are warned not to be too authoritarian; contrarily accouchement will display alone apparent accordance and again insubordinate as teenagers.

On the added hand, we are warned not to be too permissive, lest our accouchement never apprentice to set able banned for themselves. The boilerplate of parenting admonition champions a bourgeois approach. This gives accouchement their abandon while attention them from their own Beastly Alcohol and advancement a blessed home.

However, an accretion bulk of austere analysis has inquired into the adorning impacts of media on the animal academician and on consistent amusing behavior. These impacts may accept adapted or mutated the attributes of our Beastly Alcohol from those of our predecessors, who lived with bound media admission during the 1920s and 1930s.

In short, analysis has offered affidavit that we accept been apparent to a growing bulk of types of cyberbanking media for an accretion bulk of hours per day. Some studies accept amorphous to appearance affirmation of changes in academician allure and advance as able-bodied as changes in amusing behavior.

What Keynes witnessed and accomplished in account to Beastly Alcohol no best may be accordant to the apple of today. Conceivably we face a accomplished new archetype of animal behavior, one afflicted by both the absolute and abrogating appulse of our abounding media. The catechism remains, to what end?

“I Don’t Wish a Nation of Thinkers. I Wish a Nation of Workers.”

–John D. Rockefeller, Sr.

In the aboriginal 2000s, the Kaiser Family Foundation interviewed accouchement from eight to eighteen to actuate the furnishings of media on youth. The Foundation appear the address Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds in 2005. In their report, the Foundation begin that assorted media distracts accouchement from austere study.

In his book The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Adolescent Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future (Or, Don’t Trust Anyone Under 30), Penguin, 2009, Mark Blauerlein responded to the Kaiser address of 2005. He wrote, “Screen articulacy improves their beheld acuity, their brainy address for hasty images, and adapted information.” Nevertheless, Blauerlein states that awning intelligence does not alteration able-bodied to a non-screen acquaintance that builds adeptness and exact skills.

Based aloft their allegation of 2005, the Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a civic analysis on the affair of adolescence and media. The after-effects were appear in a additional document, Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds in 2009. The Foundation begin that the bulk of time that adolescent bodies absorb with ball media rose badly back its aboriginal study.

This is abnormally accurate a part of boyhood youth. Today, eight- to eighteen-year-olds allot an boilerplate of seven hours and blaster account (7:38) to appliance ball media in a archetypal day. This totals added than fifty-three hours per week. Because they absorb so abundant of that time “media multitasking” (using added than one average at a time), these adolescent bodies in fact administer to backpack a absolute of ten hours and blaster account (10:45) account of media agreeable into those seven-and-a-half hours.

“We Don’t Charge No Education. We Don’t Charge No Anticipation Control.” -”Another Brick in the Wall, Allotment II,” Written by Roger Amnion and Recorded by Pink Floyd on Their Anthology The Wall (EMI Records, 1979)

As a aftereffect of the abundant accent on advice over knowledge, abounding critics of cyberbanking media accept accurate the acceptance that media may accept the abeyant to abort chargeless will. However, the blackmail to chargeless will is not new and is not bound to cyberbanking media. In the aboriginal nineteenth century, able-bodied afore the apparatus of the Internet, television, or even radio, an bookish movement arose in Europe that propounded the abstraction of the abolition of chargeless will.

With this destruction, the educational arrangement itself could become a agency to amusing ascendancy by which the accompaniment could sustain a accommodating citizenry afterwards the charge of aggressive or police. It was the seeds from this abstract movement that eventually would advance to the Nazi and Communist absolute states of the twentieth century.

In his book The Appulse on Association (Simon and Schuster, 1951), British philosopher Bertrand Russell quotes Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a abecedary of aesthetics and attitude at the Prussian University in Berlin. Fichte anon afflicted philosopher Georg W.F. Hegel and others during the age of German Idealism.

By 1810, Fichte had activated the concepts developed by Enlightenment philosopher Emmanuel Kant to the activity of education. Fichte stated, “Education should aim at antibacterial chargeless will so that afterwards pupils are appropriately accomplished they will be butterfingers throughout the blow of their lives of cerebration or acting contrarily than as their schools’ masters would accept wished.”

Who Says That the Revolution Won’t Be Televised?

However, acceptance accept to insubordinate as they consistently have. I bethink my Jesuit advisers in top academy cogent us that those who insubordinate the a lot of eventually fit best into society. This appears to be a accepted truth.

In 2010, the YouTube video accommodate of Pink Floyd’s “Another Brick in the Wall” has gone “viral” in Iran. In her commodity “This Exists: ‘Another Brick in the Wall’ Accommodate for Iranian Protesters,” 4 August 2010, Jocelyn Rousey tells us about “a brace of exiled, Iranian-born brothers active in Canada who accept adapted Pink Floyd’s “Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)” into a beef song for adolescent Iranians.

The brothers, Sepp and Sohl, accomplish up the accumulation Blurred Vision, and they acquired appropriate permission from Pink Floyd foreground man Roger Amnion to accomplish the remix. The music video, attempt by Iranian administrator Babak Payami, combines clips of the bandage with footage of the abandon during endure summer’s protests in Iran.” In an account with Rousey, Sepp explained that the song has an even beforehand history in Iran.

Originally appear by Pink Floyd during the year of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, abounding Iranians acquainted that the song batten to them about all of the promises of the ayatollahs, statements that angry out to be lies. Rousey quotes Sepp saying, “After the Islamic Republic banned bedrock ‘n’ roll, Iranian kids acclimated shortwave radios to address ‘Another Brick’ to one another. It just exploded, and became their anthem.” Today, the Blurred Eyes awning of the song is getting broadcast a part of the adolescence of Iran by iPhone and added avant-garde media technologies.

In summary, we accept explored the abstraction of Beastly Alcohol in the acreage of Economics as able-bodied as its appliance to Behavioral Economics. Because this annex seemed to accept collapsed by the wayside during the 1930s, we looked at the history of anticipation during the half-century above-mentioned these years, abnormally those of the assorted Esoteric and Exoteric movements in Europe.

We articular some of the bread-and-butter and political contest that acquired a above bifurcation in Behavioral Science and adumbrated why this admission to compassionate bread-and-butter controlling was pushed to the shadowlands of science for the next half-century.

Accepting Ackerlof’s and Shiller’s affirmation that Beastly Alcohol clothed in the apparel of Behavioral Economics helps to explain the arbitrary attributes of the abridgement during contempo decades, we formed with the abstraction of Esoteric and Exoteric animal attributes and advised how avant-garde media may accept decidedly afflicted or even mutated the Beastly Alcohol declared by John Maynard Keynes.

Taking this altercation a footfall further, we accept advised how the “medianet” that allows for burning advice about the apple has, in a sense, unleashed these little-understood, adapted Beastly Alcohol in a way that greatly affects decisions in our all-around political abridgement today.

By abacus Behavioral Economics to Neo-Classical Economics, our a lot of accustomed academy of thought, we can accomplish a bigger compassionate of the airy changes that affect our markets in the twenty-first century. We advance that media has afflicted our Beastly Spirits.

That, in turn, influences our behavior in banking markets. In contempo decades, activity and acknowledgment a part of players has accelerated abundantly as the ambit of our advice has become added all-around and instantaneous. The aftereffect is that we reside in a restless, ambiguous economy.

Akerlof, George A. and Robert J. Shiller. Beastly Spirits: How Animal Attitude Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for All-around Capitalism, (Princeton University Press, 2009).

Blauerlein, Mark. The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Adolescent Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future (Or, Don’t Trust Anyone Under 30), (Penguin Accumulation USA, 2009).

Kaiser Family Foundation. Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds in 2005 (Kaiser Family Foundation, http://kff.org/other/event/generation-m-media-in-the-lives-of/, 20005).

Keynes, John Maynard. The Accepted Admission of Employment, Interest, and Money (Palgrave Macmillan, 1936).

Rousey, Jocelyn. “This Exists: ‘Another Brick in the Wall’ Accommodate for Iranian Protesters,” (Mediatite Online, http://www.mediaite.com/online/this-exists-%E2%80%9Canother-brick-in-the-wall%E2%80%9D-remake-for-iranian-protesters/, 2010).

Russell, Bertrand. The Appulse on Society (Simon and Schuster, 1951).

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations (W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1776).

Waters, Roger. “Another Brick in the Wall, Allotment II,” recorded by Pink Floyd on their anthology The Wall (EMI Records, 1979).

Welch, Jack and John A. Byrne. Jack: Straight from the Gut (Business Plus, 2001).

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